Department & Programs

2.1 Department of Public Health

 

Website: http://dph.ntu.edu.tw/?locale=en

 

The Department of Public Health (DPH) at National Taiwan University was founded in 1972 as the pioneer of its kind in Taiwan. Unlike the developmental process commonly seen in other departments in which an undergraduate program is first formed and then a graduate program eventually follows, the DPH was set-up two decades after the Graduate Institute of Public Health, which was established in 1951 by renaming and reorganizing the Institute of Tropical Medicine, founded during the Japanese Colonial Period. In essence, the department and the institute were deemed a two-in-one organization in the first two decades after the inception of the DPH. In 1993, the DPH and two other institutes were separated from CPH of Medicine to become the first College of Public Health (CPH) in the nation, with a matrix organizational structure of One College-One Department-Multiple Institutes. In 2005, a new CPH building was inaugurated and triggered a DPH-centered institutional reorganization.

                                                          
The dismantled old Department of Public Health building                                             

 

The inauguration of new College building

 

Initially, faculty members of the CPH were appointed separately to either the department or to one of the institutes. In 2005, as a way of encouraging all faculty members of the CPH to participate in undergraduate instruction, CPH adopted the policy of “merging CPH with the department”, inaugurating a new epoch in DPH development. Under this policy, the CPH is now in charge of making the overall plans for the DPH and the DPH chairman, in turn, serves also as the vice dean and is responsible for coordinating and carrying out DPH instruction and administration policies. An immediate benefit of this new policy was that all faculty members of the CPH were able to contribute to DPH teaching and student affairs by implementing a “two-phase mentor” system. The DPH also made use of the “joint appointment” to enlist all faculty members of the CPH in the running of the department. After the new system had been in place for three years, a further commingling of “discipline-division” was introduced into the system beginning in 2008. Based on disciplines, the whole college has been reorganized into three divisions: the Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Preventive Medicine; the Division of Health Policy and Medical Organization Management; and the Division of Environmental and Occupational Health. Each faculty member belongs to the Division which encompasses his or her specialized track and can be elected as representative of the Division to participate in the running of DPH affairs. In 2010, the six institutes of the CPH were consolidated into four, and the main affiliation of all faculty members was moved to the DPH with each faculty member being assigned an adjunct appointment in the institute of their specialty. By reforming the organization and expanding the faculty, the DPH will continue to devote itself to improving basic education in public health for the new era.

 

Departmental aims:

  • To cultivate students with the requisite knowledge and skills of a public health professional.
  • To guide ambitious people into pursuing a career in a public health related area.

 

Educational objectives:

  • To cultivate professionals in public health with expert knowledge, practical ability, and a global perspective, so as to promote health for all.

 

Core values:

  • Compassion
  • Integrity
  • Teamwork
  • Equality

 

The DPH has cultivated numerous talented experts in public health since its inception. Our alumni are widely distributed throughout various circles. They contribute abundantly in the areas of health administration, environmental health organization, and public health education in research institutes, non-profit organizations and the commercial R&D departments of various industries, where they hold positions as professional staff members, research experts, instructors and managers. At the DPH, we continuously perform self-evaluation and strive to strengthen our contribution to worldwide public health, both through research and by providing quality teaching that prepares our students to be talented experts versed in public health theory and practice.

 

                    

 

Activities

Since the realm of public health covers a vast range of activities, the research topics undertaken by students and professors of CPH of Public Health are abundant. Conferences and academic speeches regularly organized by colleges and departments are many and well attended. CPH professors and students also attend conferences organized by the Taiwan Public Health Association and other related societies each year where they present their most recent papers and research achievements. The quality of public health research has been substantially improved due to such efforts. Every summer vacation, we organize a “Public Health Service Team” to serve the various communities and conduct a survey of hygiene and health care.

Many students take part in a community service project for a period of seven days during the summer. The project provides an excellent opportunity for students to interact with local communities and to work on practical problems in public health. Students in their junior year are also encouraged to apply for NSC research projects and take courses of study on special topics in public health, in order to hone research skills and develop logical thinking.

 

 

 

FURTHER STUDY AND CAREERS

1. Students are expected to learn core competencies in the following areas:

  1. Biomedical Science
  2. Basic Quantitative Analysis and Biostatistics
  3. Epidemiology
  4. Environmental Health Sciences
  5. Health Policy and Management
  6. Social and Behavioral Sciences
  7. Global Health

 

 

 

2. Further studies     

For the past few years, 60-65% of each year’s graduates have pursued advanced study in one or more of the following ways:

  1. by applying to a foreign/domestic Master/Ph.D. program in Public Health, Environmental Medicine, Health Care Administration, Industrial Hygiene, Epidemiology, Biostatistics, etc.
  2. by applying to a non-degree program such as the Secondary School Teaching Program, Biotechnology Program, Genomics and Proteomics Program, Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Program, Biological Statistics Program, Infectious Disease Program, Geriatrics and Long Term Care Program, etc.

 

3. Career options

Most DPH graduates pursue a career as one of the following types of health care professional:

(1) Governmental Official

Some graduates of DPH take certification tests for Health Administration or Health Technology as they choose to take up public service work. Because students in Environmental and Occupational Health are closer to the field, they often also take certification tests for Environmental Examination, Environmental Protection Administration, Environmental Protection Technology, and Occupational Safety.

Some students sign contracts with specific institutions for jobs. The institutions that make contracts with students include the Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Administration, the Centers for Diseases Control, and county or municipal departments of health.

*Graduates from DPH can also get professional engineering qualification through professional engineer tests to become industrial safety engineers, industrial & mine safety & health engineers, or occupational safety & health administrators.

(2) Statistical Consultant

Some graduates serve in the Center for Drug Evaluation in Taiwan. Many graduates also work for iStat, Ho-Hsin Hospital, pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies. Some of our students are employed in related domains around the world.

(3) Actuary

Many graduates from DPH work in ING, Chinalife, or the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MLIC). These companies require additional learning and procurement of licenses.

(4) University Faculty Member

You can find many graduates from the DPH working as a teacher or a lecturer in departments related to public health in universities such as National Taiwan University, National Cheng Kung University, Taipei Medical University, National Yang-Ming University, China Medical University, Chung Shan Medical University, National Defense Medical Center, as well as Fu Jen Catholic University. Some of our graduates also work in foreign universities such as Harvard University, North Carolina State University, Case Western Reserve University, University of Nebraska, Tulane University, etc.

(5) International Organization Staff Member (INGOs, NPOs, etc.)

Many graduates work for Non-Government International or Non-Profit Organizations that focus on public health issues. Some organizations include Luke International Norway (LIN), Good Shepherd Social Welfare Services, and the World Health Organization (WHO).

(6) CRO Researcher (Contract Research Organization)

Some of our DPH graduates are in charge of preclinical tests for new drugs in Ricerca Taiwan Ltd (Ricerca) and Protech Pharmaservices Corporation (PPC.)

(7) Media Professional

A number of graduates are journalists of medical- and health-related media or editors of health care magazines such as Common Health Magazine.

(8) Medical and Healthcare System Administrator

Administrative, executive, information and management affairs in public or private medical institutions, long-term care providers, the health industry and the World Health Organization (WHO) are also job choices for our graduates.

(9) Professional in an Industry such as Environmental and Occupational Health

Our graduates may work as risk assessment managers, health management professionals, or food examination analysts. Among them, a few work as consultants for industrial safety and health projects in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing.

 

2.2 Institute of Health Policy and Management

 

Website: http://ntuhpm.ntu.edu.tw/?locale=en

 

The mission of the Institute of Health Policy and Management, National Taiwan University is to promote the welfare of all people by formulating healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, developing effective health promotion programs, and building an equitable and efficient health care system. Through teaching, research, and services, we aim to train leaders and practitioners with the concept of health human rights, global perspectives, and professional capabilities in the field of health policy and management.

 

 

 

The history of the Institute of Health Policy and Management began in 1951, when the former Graduate Institute of Public Health (GIPH) was established within CPH of Medicine of the National Taiwan University. The GIPH was the successor of the Institute of Tropical Medicine established by the Taiwan Governor-General Office during the Japanese Colonial Period. 

Originally, the GIPH was designed to provide on-job trainings for public health practitioners and to promote public health research. In 1961, two teaching divisions – Public Health Division and Preventive Medicine Division – were established, and a master-level graduate program was commenced. In later years, additional teaching divisions were established, including Divisions of Health Administration, Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Epidemiology, Environmental Health, and Health Care Organization and Management, and a doctorate program was commenced in 1985.  

When CPH was established in 1993, all the teaching divisions were gradually transformed into independent graduate institutes of specialized fields, and the original GIPH was reorganized and renamed as the Institute of Health Policy and Management. In 2010, the Institute of Health Policy and Management and the Institute of Health Care Organization and Administration were merged into one institute with the name of Institute of Health Policy and Management, in order to strengthen the cooperation among faculty members and to increase administrative efficiency. Curriculum and other learning resources are also reorganized.

Currently, there are two divisions – namely the Division Health Promotion and the Division of Health Care and Industry. The Division of Health Promotion concentrates on teaching and research of health policies and health-related behavioral sciences, while the Division of Health Care and Industry focuses on teaching and research of management of health care organization and development of health industries.

 

Division of Health Promotion

The educational goals of the Division of Health Promotion are to foster the backbone of public health manpower and to cultivate leaders of health policy and management who uphold health and human rights concepts, global visions, as well as professionalism. The Division of Health Promotion gives emphasis to health policies and health-related behavioral sciences.

For the field of health policies, curriculum and learning resources are designed to provide students an understanding of the features and function of health care organizations and systems, as well as decision-making processes and determinants of health policies. Theoretical aspects and practical aspects are given equal importance in teaching. Topics pertaining policy analyses, program planning and program evaluation are addressed in courses, which are designed to prepare students with capabilities for analysis of the efficiency, effectiveness, fairness of the health policies, and for development of healthy public policies that leads to a healthy social environment.

For the field of health-related behavioral sciences, curriculum and learning resources are designed to provide students knowledge and training in health behavioral sciences and health communication. Teaching methods are student-centered, which aim to guide students to understand behavioral characteristics of individuals, groups, organizations, and societies, and to gain abilities in further investigating determinants of health behaviors. The program is designed to provide trainings to students to advance their skills in applying theories-based practices and technologies, developing intervention programs, improving people’s health consciousness and self-care capabilities, and in promoting healthy lifestyles.

       

 

Division of Health Care and Industry

The educational goals of the Division of Health Care and Industry are to foster the backbone of public health manpower and to cultivate leaders of hospital management, health industry who uphold health and human rights concepts, global visions, as well as professionalism.

Therefore, this division features two fields, namely health care institution management and health industry development. In terms of the teaching, the focus lies on cultivating expertise in the health care institution management and health industrial developments, and strengthening the students’ capabilities in practical work and project research. The curriculum design will be amended with the pulse of society to facilitate the employment of students in the future, where they will be able to apply what they have learned. In terms of research, in addition to continuing personal specialization of research interests and themes, there will be active collaboration with domestic and international agencies, research teams to conduct interdisciplinary research projects, in order to improve the standard of research and influence of the study results. In terms of the services, there will be active efforts in launching partnerships with governmental organizations, health industry, academic institutions, and as well as participation or assistance in project planning, execution, and evaluation. The teachers with their strong theoretical basis are expected to provide professional consultation and services to the outside in order to not only enhance the practical experience of the individual teachers, but also offer students on-spot internship opportunities. The industry’s professional standards will in turn be enhanced, and the goal of a three-win situation achieves.

 

2.3 Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene

 

Website: http://omih.ntu.edu.tw/

 

The Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene was established in 1993. This is the first graduate institute specializing in occupational medicine and industrial hygiene in Taiwan. The mission of the Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene is to advance the health of all people in occupational and community settings in Taiwan, and around the world through teaching, research and service in occupational and environmental health.

Faculty members in the institute investigate causes, mechanisms and, prevention measures of environmentally and occupationally related health issues, provide advanced education programs of occupational health with master and doctoral degrees, and provide scientifically based public health services to the public, governments, industries, and the labors. Research approaches range from the molecular to the epidemiologic, in physical scales of nano to macro, and by multiple disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, sciences and ergonomics.

The Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene focuses on complex yet important public health problems that require integrated contributions of many advanced specialties. The Institute’s faculty, research staff, and students reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the field and include chemists, engineers, epidemiologists, ergonomics, physicians, molecular biologists, exposure assessors, and risk assessors.

Teaching and research activities of the institute are carried out through nine concentrations: (1) occupational medicine, (2) industrial hygiene, (3) occupational and environmental epidemiology, (4) risk assessment, (5) environmental toxicology genomics, (6) aerosol technology, (7) ergonomics, (8) exposure assessment, (9) quality of life and health assessment.

 


    <Class of 2013, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene>

 

2.4 Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

 

Website: http://epm.ntu.edu.tw/?locale=en

 

The Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at College of Public Health, National Taiwan University was merged in 2010 as a unit of institute. Our institute has a history intermingled with CPH and other Institutes from the inception. CPH has been enrolling graduate students since 1961, with the names of “Preventive Medicine” and “Epidemiology” sections, under the Department of Public Health. Following the foundation of CPH in August 1993, the Institute of Epidemiology was established in August the following year. Upon establishment, three divisions were open for student admission, including: Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Preventive Medicine, and the Institute of Epidemiology was responsible for all instruction and research affairs for the Division of Preventive Medicine; then, the Division of Preventive Medicine formed the independent Institute of Preventive Medicine in August 2001. In coordination with the organizational reform of CPH, the spirit of coherent interdepartmental operation, and intention to increase critical mass, pool resources, and enhance competitiveness, the Institute of Epidemiology and the Institute of Preventive Medicine officially merged in August 2010. Cooperation between faculty members from the two institutes enhanced the effectiveness of both teaching and research, thereby increasing the integrity of graduate training. The new institute was called the Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. As the name suggests, the Institute offers comprehensive development from basic doctrine (epidemiology) to practical application (preventive medicine). In addition, methodology theory and application (biostatistics) is the core knowledge for epidemiology and preventive medicine. Each aspect complements two others, and three are indispensable to disease prevention and the maintenance of health. After the merger, the new institute created three divisions for student admission: Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Preventive Medicine.

 

Competitive Advantages

The competitive advantage of the merger between the Institute of Epidemiology and the Institute of Preventive Medicine to formulate an integrated discipline and the strength of this merger includes the following:

  1. Organizational simplicity, reduced administrative burden, combined resources, and increased quality and quantity in the faculty;
  2. Vertical continuity from basic undergraduate courses to advanced postgraduate courses;
  3. A greater source of students due to the three divisions open for admission; comprehensive and solid research guidance for students due to complementary and cooperative faculty member expertise;
  4. An effective critical mass in faculty member resources, which enables the organization of interdisciplinary and integrated cutting-edge research teams.

 


    <Class of 2013, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine>

 

Our students

Each division enrolls students from different backgrounds and resources: Master of Science (MS) degrees and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees. The graduate programs (MS) primarily cultivate fundamental research talent, whereas the doctoral programs (PhD) pursue excellence in research by nurturing a new generation of researchers. The allocation of faculty members to departments is flexible and responsive to the needs of both students and curricula, allowing the Institute to work towards gaining sufficient critical mass, fostering cooperation, and facilitating quality teaching and excellence in research. The solid foundation laid by the three departments of Epidemiology, Biomedical Statistics, and Preventive Medicine continues to operate in the new institute, effectively connecting the design and planning of undergraduate programs (Department of Public Health) to the graduate programs (the new institute). All full-time faculty members at the new institute will also hold adjunct positions in the Department of Public Health to ensure coherent unity between policy and research.

 


<Group Photo of Class 2013 at main campus>

 

Our institute has cultivated numerous talented experts in public health since founded. Our alumni are widely distributed throughout various health-related fields. They contribute to the health administration, the organization of environmental health, the public health education, the research institute, the non-profit organization and the R&D department of industrial circles as the professional
staff, the research expert, the instructor and the manager. We keep on executing self-evaluation and improving, as well as promoting teaching quality in order to prepare our students to be talented experts versed in public health theory and practice.

 

Curriculum

The current prevalence of chronic diseases and infectious diseases has rendered preventive medicine an issue of the utmost importance in the twenty-first century. For this reason, the curriculum at our Institute is designed to cultivate talent with comprehensive concepts of public health, preventive medicine and capabilities in utilizing theoretical knowledge associated with biostatistics, epidemiology, disease prevention, health economic evaluation, health education, and health policy and management. In research design and data analysis, students are encouraged to place equal emphasis on theory and practice, conjointly develop and empirically investigate public health and preventive medicine to properly diagnose community health issues, participate in public health work, and lead preventive health care in communities.

 

Objectives and implementation strategies for social responsibilities of the Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

As a leading authority in field of public health, epidemiology, biostatistics, and preventive medicine, the Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine set the following goals:

  1. Establishment of a healthcare think-tank and resource center for Taiwan;
  2. Installation of an integrated infrastructure and platform for project biostatistical application and promotion;
  3. Development of innovative biostatistical methodologies associated with epidemiology and preventive medicine fields;
  4. Cultivating undergraduate and graduate students with requisite knowledge and skill of public health;
  5. Providing to guide ambitious people getting into public health related area.

 

2.5 Institute of Environmental Health

 

Website: http://ieh.ntu.edu.tw/?locale=en

 

The Institute of Environmental Health, established in August 1996, was originally the Division of Environmental Health and Management in the Institute of Public Health (IPH). The Institute of Public Health was organized in 1951 out of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, which was established during the Japanese era. In its early stage, IPH filled the role of conducting public health research and training the personnel on-the-job for local public health services. In 1961, IPH began to offer two master programs, Preventive Medicine and Public Health. In 1985, IPH initiated Ph.D. programs, including the Environmental Health Program for training specialists in environmental health. To meet the needs of society, the Ministry of Education authorized the establishment of the Division of Environmental Health and Management in 1991. The division separated from IPH to become the Institute of Environmental Health (IEH) in August 1996. In 1998, the Ph.D. program, originally one of the IPH programs, was also incorporated into the newly established IEH.

Based on the expertises of the faculties, the IEH focuses its teaching and research on the following fields: conventional environmental health, environmental health technology, environmental health management, environmental toxicology, environmental epidemiology, environmental microbiology and vector control. The goal is to train students solidly in environmental health, disease prevention, and health promotion, in research and in practice. The graduates of IEH are active in industry, government, as well as academia playing the roles of technicians, administers and researchers.

The role of environmental health in disease prevention as well as health promotion evolves with changes of the society. Adapting to such changes, IEH collaborates closely with other institutes, while increasing its faculty members and instrumentation. On the basis of health sciences, we are applying the state-of-the-art technology and management to prepare out students for the demands of industry and government, which will ensure the students have potential to plan and execute the work for environmental protection and sustainable development.

 


       <Class of 2013, Institute of Environmental Health>

 

Looking into the future, IEH will integrate the modern administrative knowledge, life sciences, and environmental protection technology into conventional environmental health in order to continuous to play an active role in education, research, and services in environmental health.

 

2.6 Master of Public Health Program

 

Website: http://mph.ntu.edu.tw/?locale=en

 

The new challenges in public health have shown there is an enormous need for public health professionals with multidisciplinary views and thinking. In order to respond to the emerging issues and problems during the rapid social and economic transition in recent decades, more personnel across different disciplines in public health are needed. The organizations of private sectors, including healthcare providers and other private stakeholders in public health, also recognized the need for continuous education for their employees. In the past, these trainings were fulfilled by cooperative projects between Taiwan and foreign universities which offered MPH programs. Concerned that foreign experiences cannot fulfill our local need, NTU CPH decided to start MPH program to equip local manpower with practical experiences and cultivate future professional human resources for the society. 

 


          <Class of 2013, MPH Degree Program>

 

The MPH program was established in October in 2007. This program is different from other master degrees provided by regular departments or graduate institutes such as Master of Science (M.S.) which emphasizes development of masters for academic research. The characteristics of this MPH  program are to integrate resources in CPH, combine theory and practice, and cultivate scientific evidences and strategic thinking of public health professionals.

Three mutually related fields, including Community Health Scientific Field, Environmental and Occupational Health Field, and Health policy and Management Field were planned first when this program was started in 2007. Since 2010, the size of student body has expanded to 40, and the program increased to five disciplinary fields, including Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Health Services Administration, and Environmental Health Sciences. 

National Taiwan University Master of Public Health (NTU MPH) Degree Program is the first multi-departmental master program in Taiwan. Our MPH program is widely known in the country as the first professional credential for leadership in public health in Taiwan. It is designed for public health professionals who have the greatest passion in devoting to the progressions in public health of humankind. 

NTU MPH program integrates cross discipline resources within CPH in order to train people to lead in the field of public health. The core value of MPH is CITE, which stands for compassion, integrity, teamwork, and equality. These are the qualities that we firmly believe a public health professional should possess and with which one may develop into a responsible social being. We hope that all of our faculty and students will hold CITE as the core spirit while doing research and practicing works about public health. Our mission is to establish a highly professional, secure, fair, and effective medical system and environment that fit our public health needs. To pursue this mission, MPH program provides resourceful and rigorous education in order to cultivate frontline professionals in public practice who emphasize human rights, possess global perspective and aspire to assure the welfare of human beings.
 

2.7 Institute of Health Behaviors and Community Sciences

Website: http://hbcs.ntu.edu.tw/

The establishment of this institute corresponds to the demand of five core knowledge cultivation for the talent fostering education in public health. In addition to corresponding to the demand of Taiwan society, the College of Public Health drafted a long-term program at the initial foundation in 1993 to establish a behavior and social science related institute in the future. After establishing the college for nearly 20 years, the “Health Policy and Management Institute” among the four institutes has accumulated considerable teaching and search achievement and energy in their development of social and behavior science field which is sufficient to take one big step in forming an independent institute on the organizational level with unique and distinguished disciplinary quality, thereby to conduct interdisciplinary research with characteristics of professional domain.
 
Mission
The educational objective of this institute includes the follows: “develop professional talents equipped with social ecology and multi-layer system perspectives, quality of changing personal and group behaviors, community intervention and capacity to effectiveness evaluation, and translational and communication skills, in order to promote the national health conforming to social justice.”
 
Although the basis of the institute in terms of organization history consists of the previous “behavior science” of “health promotion group” in “Health Policy and Management Institute,” the key development after the establishment substantially differs from the previous context. In particular, the most critical difference lines on the emphasis of the institute: (1) processing impact of environmental structural factors on personal behaviors and health from the perspective of social ecology; (2) Implement community units for personal and environmental change and (3) Exceeding the previous personally attributed behaviors with objectives of change in order to progress towards the talent based personal and collective behavior change. Moreover, the another characteristic of the institute that differs from the “health behavior” is to translate and communicate the factors that can highly shape personal potential into the key development, thereby becoming the tools in implementing the aforementioned three issues.
 
Future Career
1. Positions in government agencies and related offices
Ministry of Health and Welfare, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Bureau, Country/City Health Bureau..etc, including civil service and contracted personnel and consisting of “health administration” or “health techniques” for civil service test.
 
2. Health education professionals
Large health promotion programs promoted by National Health Bureau or other health bureau, such as quitting smoke and weight loss that require massive involvement from health education personnel or case manager. The students graduating from the institute must all be equipped with professional knowledge in related domain, who can engage in such type of work.
 
3. School teachers
Including university teachers and junior/senior high school teachers. The former requires advanced study to complete PhD degree while the later requires study of education program with acquisition of teacher qualification.
 
 
4. Staff at domestic and international organizations
Apart from health related groups in Taiwan such as John Tung Foundation, students can also seek for positions in INGOS or NPOs with emphasis on international public health and social behavior issues such as (Luke International Norway (LIN), Malawi Volunteer Group, Good Shepherd Sisters Foundation, and World Health Organization (WHS). 
 
5. Media staff
Position as pharmaceutical and health related media journalist for magazine such as Common Health Magazine.
 
6. Pharmaceutical and health administrative managers
Position in the administration, planning, health education, information and management work in public and private sector medical institutions, long-term care institutions, and health related industry.